Exchanging viewpoints. European metropolises: Berlin, London, Madrid, Milan, Paris, the Randstad

At a time when the metropolitan question is raised once again, it is important to stand back and take a look at Europe’s other big metropoles to appreciate how they are adapting their ways of governance to the requirements of metropolitan development.

Tower Bridge and the Greater London Authority’s Headquarters (architect: Norman Foster) in London

They are all confronted with this major challenge, so new approaches are being applied to reinforce the cohesion and scope of the actions taken: housing in Greater London, social and environmental actions in Berlin, public transport in Madrid, economic development in Milan, taking over and redeveloping large areas of land in the Randstad.

Through thematic analyses carried out by acknowledged experts and the Apur, this research is a major source of references. Despite the institutional differences, it shows the points of convergence. It underlines the exemplary nature of certain actions with a view to fuelling the Ile de France debate. Series of maps and figures underline these comparisons and replace them in their context.

Table of contents:

Foreword by Anne Hidalgo and Pierre Mansat

Berlin, London, Madrid, Milan, Paris, Randstad – Intersecting perspectives

The governance of economic development

Local taxation and the redistributive effects

The challenges of water and territorial key players

The governance of housing - Objectives, means, institutions

Metropolises faced with inequality and segregation

The issue of sensitive zones

Cultural policies - Democracy and democratisation

Sustainable development and the fight against climatic change

Public transport - Mobility and metropolitan development of infrastructures

Towards renewed metropolitan development



Greater London strategies in matters of housing and urbanism


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  • Paris projet - Number 38 - Exchanging viewpoints. European metropoles

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